Need an research paper on comparison of competing ideologies: adolphe quetelet and cesar lombroso. Needs to be 5 pages. Please no plagiarism. He used concepts drawn from a wide variety of fields including physiognomy, early eugenics, social Darwinism, and psychiatry. Lombroso’s positivist ideologies were founded on the view that criminal behavior was an inherited trait and that someone born as a criminal could be identified with physical defects that made criminals be savage (Newburn, 2009).
Adolphe Quetelet was an Italian prison doctor whose contributions to biological positivism were great. He was one of the influential figures in criminology who contributed to the positivist school of thought by making use of extended statistical techniques. He established the relationship between crime and social factors through the use of statistical analysis. He found out that there was a relationship between crime, gender, and age. He further found out that crime had a significant relationship to social factors such as education, climate, alcohol consumption, and poverty (Stones, 2008).
According to Adolphe Quetelet, the most curious facts that we learn from the statistics of courts show the ways in which crimes repeat themselves constantly. The constancy is in terms of frequency, and how the crimes provoke the same types of punishments. This statistic made Adolphe Quetelet come up with the view that Crimes can be foretold beforehand. This because society contains the germs of all the possible crimes that will be committed and society promotes the conditions under which crime develops. He was of the view that society prepares the ground for criminal activities to thrive (Hayward, Maruna, & Mooney, 2010).
However, Quetelet theorized that there is a possibility for the society to improve people and modify institutions and all other influences of behavior to deal with crime. He theorized that as long as the cause of crime is unchanged the same effects are expected. He took an approach that was scientific in studying crime. This was coupled with the use of empirical evidence to come up with the view that physiological traits were indicative of someone’s atavistic criminal tendencies. The physiological traits he examined were, for instance, measurement of one’s cheek bones, hairline, and cleft palate (Hayward, Maruna & Mooney, 2010).  .He was of the view that criminal behavior was a product of biological makeup. Therefore he concluded that criminals should not be blamed for their actions because the factors that make them criminals were beyond their control.