Realtors rely on detailed property appraisals—conducted using appraisal tools—to assign market values to houses and other properties. These values are then presented to buyers and sellers to set price

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Realtors rely on detailed property appraisals—conducted using appraisal tools—to assign market values to houses and other properties. These values are then presented to buyers and sellers to set prices and initiate offers.

Research appraisal is not that different. The critical appraisal process utilizes formal appraisal tools to assess the results of research to determine value to the context at hand. Evidence-based practitioners often present these findings to make the case for specific courses of action.

In this Assignment, you will use an appraisal tool to conduct a critical appraisal of published research. You will then present the results of your efforts.

To Prepare:

  • Reflect on the four peer-reviewed articles you selected in Module 2 and the four systematic reviews (or other filtered high- level evidence) you selected in Module 3.
  • Reflect on the four peer-reviewed articles you selected in Module 2 and analyzed in Module 3.
  • Review and download the Critical Appraisal Tool Worksheet Template provided in the Resources.

The Assignment

(Evidence-Based Project)

Part 4A: Critical Appraisal of Research

Conduct a critical appraisal of the four peer-reviewed articles you selected by completing the Evaluation Table within the Critical Appraisal Tool Worksheet Template. Choose a total of four peer- reviewed articles that you selected related to your clinical topic of interest in Module 2 and Module 3.


: You can choose any combination of articles from Modules 2 and 3 for your Critical Appraisal. For example, you may choose two unfiltered research articles from Module 2 and two filtered research articles (systematic reviews) from Module 3 or one article from Module 2 and three articles from Module 3. You can choose any combination of articles from the prior Module Assignments as long as both modules and types of studies are represented.

Part 4B: Critical Appraisal of Research

Based on your appraisal, in a 1-2-page critical appraisal, suggest a best practice that emerges from the research you reviewed. Briefly explain the best practice, justifying your proposal with APA citations of the research.

Realtors rely on detailed property appraisals—conducted using appraisal tools—to assign market values to houses and other properties. These values are then presented to buyers and sellers to set price
Running head: CLINICAL INQUIRY AND PICO (T) 0 Clinical Inquiry and PICO (T) Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Date Clinical Inquiry and PICO (T) Mental health means the absence of mental defects and excellent social and professional performance. Mental illness is a big problem in society, which has led to many collaborative efforts to reduce morbidity. For example, a 1963 report recommended the establishment of psychiatric clinics and careful patient care, and in 1981, the state developed a comprehensive plan for patients. In 2008, a bill on mental health insurance was promulgated. There is a need to improve the provision of health care progressively. The strategies should always at improving the outcome of the health facility determined. Technology has been of great significance in other sectors, which should be the case in the provision of health care. African American adolescents do not seek medical attention more in situations associated with mental well-being. There is a need to come up with new ways, which will improve seeking health care services. This research will be based on the following PICO(T) question; P- The possibility of African American adolescence using; I-Remote Digital-psychotherapy compared to; C- the face to face therapy; O- while seeking mental illness aid. The research will be carried based on different resources, which will be obtained from reliable database. The databases include UpToDate, CINAHL Complete, Cochrane Library, PubMed (Medline). The search will be limited to full text, peer-reviewed articles within 5 years, published between 2016 and 2020. In addition, the search is guided by the relevance of the article towards and related to the research question, which will provide a platform for effectively responding to the question at hand. All these will be performed using strategies learned in class. Phrase searching uses multiple terms that increase the search surface area based on the researchers needs. The use of related article features are also essential in obtaining similar research articles. Similarly, limiting the search to a particular year range helps in returning current searches while searching multiple databases increases the variety of searches. Also, a strategy to increase the rigor and effectiveness of a database search is to use alternative terms. My initial search on EBSCO generated 192 articles which were later narrowed using the strategies learned in this class. This eliminated about half of the articles and left me with 102 articles. The Cochran Database of Systemic Review contains valuable randomized controlled trials and should be searched first to answer intervention questions, due to the reviews still being relatively new and few (Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt, 2018. P. 79). The Cochrane library was utilized from the many articles I chose one from as it is recognized to have the highest level of evidence. African American adolescents tend to fail to seek medical attention in mental health cases. This has been attributed to confidentiality and convenience issues. There is the need, therefore to improvise new ways, which will improve the possibilities of the target population seeking medical attention. A preview of the resources indicates that technology has been effective in the provision of health care services. The medical practitioner can attend to several patients while using digital platforms. The digital platforms, in this case, are telepsychiatry. This provides a better comparison platform for the effectiveness of traditional means of delivering health care services with the modern one that is the digital platforms. According to research done, the youth prefer communicating through online platforms (Lauckner & Whitten, 2015). This will also make it easier for them to seek medical attention through the online platforms too. Research also indicates that African Americans are also less likely to seek psychiatric therapeutic attention. This may be attributed to the convenience and confidence issues (Powell et al., 2017). Conclusion The research through the PICOT question will expertly evaluate the clinical issue on the Availability of adolescent mental health care based on the African American populace. The PICOT question will assess the effectiveness of the digital platforms as the intervention strategies compared to the traditional methods used. Reference Lauckner, C., & Whitten, P. (2016). The State and Sustainability of Telepsychiatry Programs. The journal of behavioral health services & research, 43(2), 305–318. doi:10.1007/s11414-015-9461-z Melnyk, B.M., Fineout-Overholt, E., Stillwell, S.B., & Williamson, K.M. (2018). Evidence-based practice: Step by step: Igniting a spirit of inquiry. American Journal of Nursing, 109(11). doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000363354.53883.58 Powell, A., Chen, M., Thammachart, C. (2017). The Economic Benefits of Mobile Apps for Mental Health and Telepsychiatry Services When Used by Adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 26 (1), pp. 125-133
Realtors rely on detailed property appraisals—conducted using appraisal tools—to assign market values to houses and other properties. These values are then presented to buyers and sellers to set price
Critical Appraisal Tool Worksheet Template Evaluation Table Use this document to complete the evaluation table requirement of the Module 4 Assessment, Evidence-Based Project, Part 4A: Critical Appraisal of Research Full APA formatted citation of selected article. Article #1 Article #2 Article #3 Article #4 Evidence Level * (I, II, or III) Conceptual Framework Describe the theoretical basis for the study (If there is not one mentioned in the article, say that here).** Design/Method Describe the design and how the study was carried out (In detail, including inclusion/exclusion criteria). Sample/Setting The number and characteristics of patients, attrition rate, etc. Major Variables Studied List and define dependent and independent variables Measurement Identify primary statistics used to answer clinical questions (You need to list the actual tests done). Data Analysis Statistical or Qualitative findings (You need to enter the actual numbers determined by the statistical tests or qualitative data). Findings and Recommendations General findings and recommendations of the research Appraisal and Study Quality Describe the general worth of this research to practice. What are the strengths and limitations of study? What are the risks associated with implementation of the suggested practices or processes detailed in the research? What is the feasibility of use in your practice? Key findings Outcomes General Notes/Comments *These levels are from the Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice: Evidence Level and Quality Guide Level I Experimental, randomized controlled trial (RCT), systematic review RTCs with or without meta-analysis Level II Quasi-experimental studies, systematic review of a combination of RCTs and quasi-experimental studies, or quasi-experimental studies only, with or without meta-analysis Level III Nonexperimental, systematic review of RCTs, quasi-experimental with/without meta-analysis, qualitative, qualitative systematic review with/without meta-synthesis Level IV Respected authorities’ opinions, nationally recognized expert committee/consensus panel reports based on scientific evidence Level V Literature reviews, quality improvement, program evaluation, financial evaluation, case reports, nationally recognized expert(s) opinion based on experiential evidence **Note on Conceptual Framework The following information is from Walden academic guides which helps explain conceptual frameworks and the reasons they are used in research. Here is the link Researchers create theoretical and conceptual frameworks that include a philosophical and methodological model to help design their work. A formal theory provides context for the outcome of the events conducted in the research. The data collection and analysis are also based on the theoretical and conceptual framework. As stated by Grant and Osanloo (2014), “Without a theoretical framework, the structure and vision for a study is unclear, much like a house that cannot be constructed without a blueprint. By contrast, a research plan that contains a theoretical framework allows the dissertation study to be strong and structured with an organized flow from one chapter to the next.” Theoretical and conceptual frameworks provide evidence of academic standards and procedure. They also offer an explanation of why the study is pertinent and how the researcher expects to fill the gap in the literature. Literature does not always clearly delineate between a theoretical or conceptual framework. With that being said, there are slight differences between the two. References The Johns Hopkins Hospital/Johns Hopkins University (n.d.). Johns Hopkins nursing dvidence-based practice: appendix C: evidence level and quality guide. Retrieved October 23, 2019 from Grant, C., & Osanloo, A. (2014). Understanding, Selecting, and Integrating a Theoretical Framework in Dissertation Research: Creating the Blueprint for Your” House”. Administrative Issues Journal: Education, Practice, and Research, 4(2), 12-26. Walden University Academic Guides (n.d.). Conceptual & theoretical frameworks overview. Retrieved October 23, 2019 from © 2018 Laureate Education Inc. 6
Realtors rely on detailed property appraisals—conducted using appraisal tools—to assign market values to houses and other properties. These values are then presented to buyers and sellers to set price
Matrix Worksheet Template Use this document to complete Part 2 of the Module 2 Assessment, Evidence-Based Project, Part 1: An Introduction to Clinical Inquiry and Part 2: Research Methodologies Full citation of selected article Article #1 Article #2 Article #3 Article #4 Alhassan, R. K., & Poku, K. A. (2018). Experiences of frontline nursing staff on workplace safety and occupational health hazards in two psychiatric hospitals in Ghana. BMC public health, 18(1), 701. De Castro, A. B., Cabrera, S. L., Gee, G. C., Fujishiro, K., & Tagalog, E. A. (2009). Occupational health and safety issues among nurses in the Philippines. Aaohn Journal, 57(4), 149-157.  Kangasniemi, M., Vaismoradi, M., Jasper, M., & Turunen, H. (2013). Ethical issues in patient safety: Implications for nursing management. Nursing ethics, 20(8), 904-916. Trinkoff, A. M., Geiger-Brown, J. M., Caruso, C. C., Lipscomb, J. A., Johantgen, M., Nelson, A. L., … & Selby, V. L. (2008). Personal safety for nurses. In Patient safety and quality: An evidence-based handbook for nurses. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). Why you chose this article and/or how it relates to the clinical issue of interest (include a brief explanation of the ethics of research related to your clinical issue of interest) The reason for the choice of the article is because it looks at the need for a safe working environment at hospitals. It relates to the research areas since its primary focus tends to explore the experiences of nurses health and safety for nurses in Ghana. During the research, there was the observation of ethics since individuals acquired for the hospitals involved. The paper looks at the workplace safety and health issues relating to nurses in the Philippines. Thus it was a suitable choice as it directly related to the topic of research. Besides that, the paper shows that many ethical considerations for during the study got maintained as there was discrete on any information provided. The research followed the guidelines for human subject protection and was anonymous and self-administered to ensure ethicality. The article researches on the ethical issues that relate to patient and their implication to nurses. The reason behind the choice was because it’s important to know what ethics brings to both patient and nurses safety. The article involves the personal safety for nurses; thus, it is directly related to the topic of our researches and gives more insight about patient care quality and health and satyr of nurses. Brief description of the aims of the research of each peer-reviewed article The paper aims to explore the experiences of nurses in their workplaces and look at the safety and health problems in the psychiatric facilities in Ghana. Moreover, it seems to find whether a safe working environment can promote productivity in the workplaces. The article aims to try and find safety and health issues that face nurses in the country. Moreover, it looks at the problems related to work among nurses in the Philippines and the injuries they usually suffer. The purpose of the paper is to discuss ethical issues that result from patient safety and also implication to the nurses. It explores how nurse’s decisions impact safety for them and the patients and whether they utilize ethicality in patient safety. The paper aims to explore the safety of nurses in hospitals and injuries and illness that get induced to the nurses as they work. Moreover, it explores the productivity of healthy nurses. Brief description of the research methodology used Be sure to identify if the method used was qualitative, quantitative, or a mixed-methods approach. Be specific. The research used mixed methods which applied exploratory cross-sectional study where it did a random sampling of nurses. Moreover, it also used the ordinary least square regression test to find if staffs get exposed to occupational hazards and involved two psychiatric hospitals. The study involved a survey where data got collected from nurses attending the PNA convention. Data got collected from about 690 attendees who participated in the survey. Moreover, it used questioner to conduct the study among nurses. The review got self-administered and was anonymous. The study used mixed methods to gather information about ethics among nurses and how their decisions help to ensure patient safety. Generally, the study looked at what is ethical and what the nurses felt was unethical between the best practices and the common practice in hospitals. The paper used a cross-sectional study. Data got collected from several pieces of research, and there was an application of questionnaires given to random nurses in the region To find what their about their safety. A brief description of the strengths of each of the research methodologies used, including reliability and validity of how the methodology got applied in each of the peer-reviewed articles you selected. The method applied in the research was beneficial and helped a lot to achieve several objectives. Foremost it helped to find out that the levels of hazards among nurses were high in Accra. Moreover, the interviews conducted on the nurses in the hospitals showed nurses tend to gets exposed to occupational hazards. The strength of the research was on the samples of the nurses concentrated in one area. This helped to get quick, fast hand information about the health and safety of the nurses. The methodology used proved to be useful since around 600 of the nurses gave out the truth of information. The anonymously of the surveys enabled the researchers to cover a large number. The methodology made it possible to measure demographics by inquiring about the kind of work. The methodology used to come in handy it helped to measure the visibility of ethics in patient safety, And showed that there is always a challenge among nurses why they try to promote the profile of ethics. Besides, a survey on the patient and their role to patient safety showed patients are also responsible for their safety. The study used several measures. Foremost, it applied demographic to see how nurses at different levels and hospital react to their safety and health. Moreover, the survey on how nurses at the workplace and how they ensure the safety of patients showed that most nurse highly regards their safety and health. Besides that, they apply best practices to safeguard their patients. General Notes/Comments Research has shown that most nurses who have worked for many years are in cost danger to hazards and their safety might be at risk. Research has shown that nurses highly regard ethicality in their work. However, there are situations where nurses have gone against everyday ethics to save peoples life. © 2018 Laureate Education Inc. 4

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