: Formulate one new comment of your own. It must be a logical and thoughtful response that synthesizes the comments of at least 3 classmates into one comment. Be sure to synthesize; do not simply repl

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: Formulate one new comment of your own. It must be a logical and thoughtful response that synthesizes the comments of at least 3 classmates into one comment. Be sure to synthesize; do not simply reply to each of the 3 classmates.

1. The leading Health Indicators I recognized had patterns throughout this module particularly in the area where I was raised was Injury and Violence. Motor vehicle crashes, homicide, domestic and school violence, child abuse and neglect, suicide, and unintentional drug overdoses are important public health concerns in the United States. I can also say unfortunately homicide had a high percentage (HP, 2020). The reports I reviewed were from the Northeast and then broken down to Long Island and more specifically Suffolk country. I have noticed some trends with the aged 25-34 and 15-24 with the highest rates in both suicide, unintentional injury, homicide and MVA’s with in all ages and race. This was all data during the time period of 2011-2016. Genetic and biological factors play a large role in suicide likelihood. Research has shown that suicidal behaviors run in families. A notable example are the suicides of the Hemingway family in which five members committed suicide. There has been claims of 10 to 15 genes account for triggering suicide attempts. Similarly how depression is linked genetically, family ties also have a large effect on one’s suicide risk. Suicidal behavior are linked usually when there is a situation or even that the person finds overwhelming. Such as death of a loved one, emotional trauma, physical pain or illness, marital issues and financial problems…etc. Suicide rates are seen most in white, non-Hispanic males than any other race and between the age group of 25-34 with 12, 872 and between age 15-24 with 9,382 people who took their own life (CDC, 2020). All of these health indicators are immediate health impact, the effects of injuries and violence extend well beyond the injured person or victim of violence, affecting family members, friends, coworkers, employers, and communities. Witnessing or being a victim of violence is linked to lifelong negative physical, emotional, and social consequences (HP, 2020). Many intentional and unintentional injuries are preventable we just need to find ways to identify them so we can mitigate further harm.


(2020, February 20). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:



(2020, July 17). Retrieved from Healthy People 2020:




2. There seems to be an increasing absence of health services available to people today, as a result of not having medical insurance for whatever reason or living in poverty, to name a few. National Academies of Sciences (2018) stated, “the World Health Organization states that health is determined by a person’s individual characteristics and behaviors, physical environment, and socioeconomic environment as cited in WHO, 2017, para 7). Biological risk factors include inherited diseases and conditions that require medical attention. The prevalence of these varies with age, sex, race, and ethnicity. For example, people presented with sickle cell anemia inherited from their family members request a higher need for health services. It is assumed that blacks and Latinos are less likely to obtain an adequate amount of resources to seek medical attention, and most likely live in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Behavior risk factors are smoking, lack of physical exercise, and poor dieting, which can greatly influence the access to services. Social factors can also be a risk for people who do not have access to care. Based on household income, some individuals may not afford services or qualify for medical insurance. Resources included in the community can be scarce in some areas, potentially resulting from not enough funding or low education levels. According to The National Academies Press (2016), “literature on the independent effects of education on health care utilization, health care outcomes, and costs typically measures education using categories of educational attainment (e.g., years of schooling or credentials achieved) (p. 51). Finally, certain disabilities that are caused by environmental factors still require the same general health care needs as everyone else, even though they might use additional resources.


3. Although Healthy People separately explains in depth, each of the Leading health Indicators, it’s important for public health professionals to identify how the Leading Health Indicators are correlated. If one may lead to another, than efforts toward that one may mitigate the risk of all concerning factors. Public health professionals must study and understand how one’s ability to access to health care has a direct impact on his or her health (ODPHP, 2020a). It’s important that public health professionals work to overcome obstacles in a population’s health from all angles. This includes looking at biological, behavioral, environmental, and social risk factors individually and collectively. Not only is one’s health determined by diet, physical activity, tobacco use, or seeing a doctor when needed; health status is also determined by social and economic opportunity as well as the environment (ODPHP, 2020b). A specified population may be at risk of diabetes due to the environment and behavioral factors (i.e. no built outdoor parks and an unhealthy eating habit), while at the same time not being able to visit a doctor to prevent it from happening.

The differences between populations, no matter the size, should be looked at by public health professionals to identify health risks as well as the disparities which lead to those risks. Five key determinant areas developed by Healthy People 2020 are Economic Stability, Education, Social and Community Context, Health and Health Care, and Neighborhood and Build Environment (ODPHP, 2020b). Applying these broadened determinant areas to each population can help pinpoint why one may benefit over another, and how public health professionals can work to eliminate disparities and improve health for all. By eliminating disparities in health and health care, public health professionals can also eliminate correlating risk factors.


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