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I am seeking assistance to review 2 papers and write 1 rubric for each paper.

Good day, I am seeking assistance to review 2 papers and write 1 rubric for each paper.
TITLE : HOW CAN MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES IN NYPD BE IMPROVED IN PREVENTING SUICIDE RESEARCH QUESTION: What effect does mental health service in NYPD have on reducing suicide tendencies among NYPD? GOAL: The goal is to explore how evidence based mental health services can help reduce suicide rate among NYPD officers. OBJECTIVE 1: to explore the effectiveness of the current mental health services in the NYPD. OBJECTIVE 2: Based on the finding from objective 1 to conduct a new mental health service to selected NYPD and evaluate its impact on suicide. Hem, E., Berg, A., & Ekeberg, &. (2001). Suicide in Police—A Critical Review. Suicide and Life‐Threatening Behavior, 31(2), 224-233. The article discusses that police officers are a high-risk group for suicide tendencies. They are often exposed to violent crime scenes which may sometime cause fear on the job. As the article explores the recent worldwide studies on suicide rate among police officers. The results were that, while some articles show elevated suicide rates in suicide, other studies show inconsistent results. These findings suggest that there is the need for further systematic research. On the other hand, the review failed to address the effectiveness of the currently available to NPPD. Therefore, there is the need to explore the effectiveness of the current mental health services currently available to NYPD officers in coping with suicide tendencies. Violanti, J. (2004). Predictors of Police Suicide Ideation. Suicide and Life‐Threatening Behavior, 34(3), 277-283. The second literature review shows that further inquiry in processes that leads to suicide in the police occupation is necessary. How? The study mentioned some major contributing factors leading suicide tendencies in police occupation. The article focuses on psychological traumatic police work experience, the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in officers, and the inordinate use of alcohol associated with this condition. Furthermore, the study focuses on symptoms, causes and prevention. Therefore, the combined impact of PTSD and alcohol abuse led to a ten-fold increase risk for suicide ideation. Several demographic correlates of suicidal ideation have been found to include age, gender, ethnicity, marital status and social support. Moreover, psychosocial correlates of ideation are depression, family discord, personal stress and abuse of alcohol. Studies of PTSD is unique symptoms brought about by exposure to a traumatic and most often violent crime scenes which may cause intense fear on the job. Studies of veterans with PTSD have reported an increase risk of suicidal behavior. the review failed to explain if any, the effectiveness of mental health services available to suicide ideation within the police force in the NYPD. Therefore, there is the need to conduct a study specifically on the effectiveness of mental health services in the NYPD. Arnetz, B. B., Arble, E., Backman, L., Lynch, A., & Lublin, A. (2013). Assessment of a Prevention Program for Work-related Stress among Urban Police Officers. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 86(1), 79-88. doi:http://dx.doi.org.lehman.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.1007/s00420-012-0748-6 The method used was ANOVA. In this, a random sampling of 37 police cadets received complementary training in psychological and technical techniques to reduce anxiety and enhance performance when giving a series of police critical incidents. Then there was another random sample of 38 cadets also receiving training as usual was followed in parallel. Assessment of somatic and psychological health and stress biomarkers was done at baseline, immediately following training and 18 months as a regular officer. Comparison was done using two-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression. The findings were as follows: (1) the results show that, the intervention group improved their general health and problem-based coping as compared to the control group. (2) they also demonstrated lower levels of stomach problems, sleep difficulties, and exhaustion. The training was associated with an OR of 4.1 (95% CI, 1.3-13.7; P< 0.05) improved GHO. The study reveals that somatic symptoms such as coping, mental well-being, sleep quality, exhaustion, blood hormone sampling and analysis and statistics was conducted in the control and the intervention groups. Series of logistic regression models were reviewed to compare the two groups improvements across the study’s duration. In this, three such models were tested and adopted. the study discusses that preventive mechanism by way of training can reduce suicide tendencies. Loo, R. (2003). A Meta‐Analysis of Police Suicide Rates: Findings and Issues. Suicide and Life‐Threatening Behavior, 33(3), 313-325. Meta-analysis is a quantitative formula. It is an epidemiological study design used to systematically assess the results of previous research to derive conclusions about the body of the research. The study was conducted using (101) sample from the literature. The review identified issues researchers need to address, which includes the use of long-time frames. The reporting of more complete suicide statistics, including breakdowns by year, sex, and ethnic groups; and the rates for population comparison groups. The study gave further evidence of rate of suicide across different regional groups and population comparison. The review also showed true suicide rate is higher than officially reported rate. Regarding suicide ratio, it is important to note that the review identified that police suicide neglect important information about population suicide rate which is very essential in evaluation within the larger context of suicide in different countries and regions around the world. The increase rate in some places were not uniform, while decrease rates were due to under reporting. Therefore, there is the need to conduct a new study to determine the current trend in police suicide and design effective mental health service program and reduce suicide tendencies among NYPD officers. Janik, J., & Kravitz, H. (1994). Linking Work and Domestic Problems With Police Suicide. Suicide and Life‐Threatening Behavior, 24(3), 267-274. The review specifically mentioned increase rate of suicide in New York, Chicago and some other major cities around the world. Tennessee, London and Canada. The study found that harassment by administrators may exert a protective effect against attempting suicide. Therefore, those who are primarily concerned with harassments, rather tends to ignore other existing problems simply because, they focus unidirectionally on the harassment to the exclusion of all others, perhaps denying their other problems. Some officers feel increasingly isolated from members of their administration. officers cite stress from administration who they feel may not be knowledgeable about their street experiences. Interestingly, the study shows that, the general mortality rate of police suicide occurred due to improved medical procedures, better training and wearing of bulletproof vests. These findings prove that there is the need to evaluate the current mental health services in the NYPD in order to redesign, improve and ensure effectiveness on mental health services to reduce suicide rate in the NYPD. Introduction: Police suicides are usually caused by many stressors. Police occupation itself is a high risk due to work overload, shift work, and exposure to violent and life-threatening situations, among other many other factors. On the other hand, the police organization is another source of stress due to departmental protocols, as well as local and federal policies. For instance, there is the lack of support and proper recognition from management and the autocratic leadership styles. Work-shift, temporal assignments, temporal postings and transfers create a huge burden on police families. Unfortunately, family disruptions can also contributing factors in police suicide tendencies. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD), alcohol and substance abuse are benign factors that can potentially trigger suicide tendencies in the NYPD as established in the above review. Therefore, as indicated above there is the need to conduct studies into police suicide and determine causes and symptoms in order to design effective mental health training programs to reduce police suicide in the NYPD. Different stages of evaluation including surveys should be conducted during the study. Other area of interest in the study includes racial and gender bias. Gays, lesbians and transgender (LGBT) discrimination within the NYPD. The contributing factors are not studied well especially among NYPD officers. Therefore, the current proposal will explore existing mental health service that is given to NYPD and based on the findings design a new mental health program to reduce the suicide rate among NYPD. BODY: The study showed that there is an increase of suicide rate among police officers because of the unique nature of the job1. The police officers occupation is one of the most highly risk for suicide tendencies. There is many reasons for this. Police officers are constantly expose to violent crime scene. The task of police is very stressful job by its nature. The findings from the review as already noted indicate that there is the need to conduct new study within the NYPD in order to validate the research question above. The review show that most of the data are out-of-date and therefore current study is required. A systematic and methodical study into nationwide and specifically NYPD suicide is required in order to accept or reject the proposed Hypothesis. Previous studies have found many contributing factors to police sucide2. PSTD is one of the contributing factors the paper discussed. The second contributing factors is alcohol use. The third contributing factor …In the second article review, the focus was on PTSD as a contributing factor of police suicide due to the traumatic and violent crime scenes that officers are exposed to while on duty. However, the article failed to show or explain what is causing the PTSD among NYPD. The article also failed to explain what if any coping mechanism is available by way of mental health services to deal with PTSD. This is a mental health problem and requires mental health services to solve the problem. The ANOVA method used in the third review shows that the invention group improved better with coping mechanism such as mental well-being, sleep quality, exhaustion etc. therefore studies using the ANOVA method is needed conduct studies in the NYPD or the above-mentioned research question The fourth review on “Meta-Analysis show that more transparency from the police department nationwide is needed in order to establish a valid report on police suicide. The data from the review specifically on NYPD suicide was either out-moded or insufficient and therefore inconclusive. The NYPD local and federal law enforcement agencies need to cooperate fully with researchers and make data readily available so that more studies can be conducted in order to establish authentic and reliable data report on the subject. The fifth article “Living Work and Problems with Police suicide” shows how harassment by administrators can exert negative pressure on officers even to the point of committing suicide. Therefore, constructive survey at regular intervals should be part of the mental health services offered to train officers before recruitment, in-service and after service.
Good day, I am seeking assistance to review 2 papers and write 1 rubric for each paper.
11 THE IMPACT OF URINARY ISSUES IN THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM What is the impact of not having access to health insurances for females who suffers from urinary issues? Abstract Females who suffer from urinary issues such as overactive bladder and interstitial cystitis, and do not have access to health care tend to worsen their health condition. Some females are not aware of how dangerous and painful these urinary issues can be without the proper and enough medical services and income/health insurance. The research proposal will inform about how urinary issues is becoming a huge liability to the health care industry, the reason patients with urinary issues do not visit their doctors and how is affecting people emotionally and physically. The proposal of this research paper is to create a strategy to decrease the number of women with urinary problems who have no income/health benefits for treatments/medical services, to educate and encourage them to intervene until the disorder becomes a long-term issue. From an article (must be my research method): Furthermore, a cross sectional study was performed to examine discrepancies between patients with bladder pain syndrome (BPS)/interstitial cystitis (IC) and patients without these urinary issues. The study indicated that patients (females) between the ages of 48-50 and older, patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (174%) use a relatively larger volume of health care services than the control group, people without BPS/IC (150%) in Taiwan. This study shows how important is for the health care system to focus on these individual, especially females who suffers from urinary problems because not having the necessary resources such as medical assistance, income and health education could lead to other medical complications such as affecting their emotions and physical. Research Goals and Objective The objective of this research proposal is to find out the consequences that females can face due to lack of health insurance access and how it can increase the condition to become dire. The goal of this research proposal is to construct a plan to decrease the number of females with urinary issues that do not have income resources/health coverage for the treatments/services and, inform and advocate them to act before the condition becomes a long-term process. Therefore, the research proposal will provide the resources needed to prevent the expansion and the risks for the issue to get dire. Studies have shown that interstitial cystitis (IC) is one of the most expensive illnesses to the health care industry and it will be kept increasing (Chung, S. D., Liu, S. P., Li, H. C., & Lin, H. C. (2014). Based on the Health care service utilization among patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a single payer healthcare system by Chung and other authors, patients with bladder pain syndrome (BPS)/IC consume more healthcare supplies/funds than those who are not diagnosed with BPS/IC. For that reason, patients with urinary issues must still be provided with medical resources and there should be a way to provide enough medical needs to those who cannot benefit from health insurances. Most importantly, the live of all females with urinary issue matter and the goal of every specialist should be to give all the medical resources to prevent the damage to evolve in the bladder. But, in many cases, health insurances cannot cover most of the health services; imagine those females with urinary issues without health insurances, the case is worse. However, the health care industry has evolved and seems to be providing better care to patients with urinary issues than in the past. According to Medical care of overactive bladder in elderly patients by Jensen, G. A., Zhiyuan Zhou, & Yasuhiro Torigoe, studies have shown that elder patients with urinary issues do not seek for medical help because they feel uncomfortable informing doctors. The health care industry must find ways to help patients who are unwilling to visit doctors because it makes them feel awkward to tell their urinary issues. For this reason and many reasons, this research proposal is being created to help the group of people, elder, who are not receiving what they need to help them be healthy and feel happy. Literature Review Urinary issues are the most uncomfortable condition women could ever experience. Overactive bladder (OAB), chronic/interstitial cystitis (IC) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) are three of the most common urinary issues that affect female’s in every sense such as social life, mentality and physically. It has been difficult to find out because the symptoms are variable. Typically, pain creates another pain and affects other parts of the human body. Overactive bladder is a condition in which the bladder releases urine at any time; not letting the bladder fills up fully. Interstitial cystitis is also known as a chronic problem. It consists of a few symptoms such as feeling pressure and pain the pelvic area, especially the bladder. The last urinary issue is urinary incontinence, is an uncontrollable condition because is an involuntary leakage of urine. Furthermore, in order to treat these types of urinary conditions, patients must have access to health insurances or income, a form of payment to cover all the medical needs. The medical services for these conditions are very expensive and the price will keep increasing, as researchers have shown. Also, urinary issues are affecting emotionally and physically the health of people. Some of the people do not seek for help because they dislike informing the condition and others believe, especially women, giving birth is the main cause of developing urinary issues/ overactive bladder. There are many things that could be done to reduce and help individuals with urinary issues. To start off, overactive bladder is and it’s becoming the most high-priced illness. The more patients there is to treat the symptoms of urinary issues, the more medical needs are needed to treat the condition. According to Socioeconomic costs of overactive bladder and stress urinary incontinence in Korea by Wooseuk and other authors, “those that used incontinence pads, only 45% visited their doctor for bladder problems, leaving 55% who probably relied on self-treatment [21]. More seriously, 12.6% of those with UI visited their doctor, yet only 0.8% of those had surgery for incontinence”. In other words, a big percentage of people decided to not go back for check-ups, and this brings a lot of questions to mind. The main question is “Why are they not coming back?” and the answer must and should only be collected from those 50% of people that didn’t visit the doctor again. The focus of the research proposal is to find out if health insurances have anything to do with their visits. Are health insurances plans limiting the use of resources/services? Are they not paying for better treatments? Some individuals start to make home remedies when they see that medical services are not improving their health. According to Medical care of overactive bladder in elderly patients by Jensen and other authors, “The findings from epidemiologic surveys, as well as analyses of actual medical encounter data, indicate that treatment rates for OAB are very low”. Meaning, researchers had use surveys to find out why the rate for OAB treatments is too small. There is a possibility that doctors are not giving more options to patients or health insurances cannot cover certain treatments. Wooseuk and the other authors mentioned in his article, “In Korea, although the consequences associated with OAB and SUI result in adverse effects on quality of life and increasing medical cost, a very small number of patients used medications because of a lack of social recognition”. As we can from this article, the country Korea is concerned for the socioeconomics costs of overactive bladder and stress urinary incontinence because medical costs keep arising and negative effects are occurring to the patients because a big number of patients are not taking the medicines given by the doctor due to lack of social acceptance. Furthermore, patients with urinary issues need to visit more their doctors than patients who do not suffer from the condition. According to Health care service utilization among patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a single payer healthcare system by Chung, “IC is a costly disease to the health care system. Clemens et al. reported that the mean yearly costs were 2.4-fold greater for the patients with IC than for controls without in a managed care population” In this study, researchers took two group of people: the patient with IC and the patients without IC (controls) with the same health insurance (Taiwan’s National Health Insurance) to investigate which of the groups consumed more medical needs and the findings demonstrate that people with IC consume the most. Based on Health care service utilization among patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a single payer healthcare system by Chung, “Wu et al. indicated that the average IC patient has 130% higher direct costs than the average non-IC patient based on claims data from several managed care plans”. The health care industry is noticing that patients with IC are consuming and attending to health organization more than people who do not have the condition. Due to the urinary condition, it’s best for doctors to make home visits. Most of the people facing this health issue are elderly around the ages of 45 and above. Care providers will have different views towards home visits. Some might believe that they do not have all the necessary equipment’s to check their patients at home. Others might believe that this is a good idea because it helps the patients to feel comfortable and prevent them getting into heavy traffics. According to home visits – central to primary care, tradition or an obligation? A qualitative study by Theile and other authors, “Today in most European countries and the United States home visits are the exception and are no longer the standard method of health care delivery – although there is diversity between individual general practitioners (GPs) and different countries… the number of home visits is continuously declining while the primary target group, namely older, multimorbid people, is growing”. This is not a good sign for those individuals who would like to see their doctors at home and their condition has reach the extreme stage meaning those individuals who cannot even go outside because they have the sensation of wanting to urinate. Moreover, and unfortunately, urinary issues lead to other non-related and related issues, affecting people in every sense; emotionally and physically. Based on Health care service utilization among patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a single payer healthcare system by Chung and other authors, “Patients with IC may not only have a reduced quality of life, but are also more likely to suffer from other physical or mental co-morbidities as compared to the general population”. The following article mentions how this horrible condition makes them feel and misunderstand the cause of the urinary issue, basically they make assumptions. Both genders: males and females came up with these responses regarding their urinary condition. Based on Medical care of overactive bladder in elderly patients by Jensen and other authors, “Many persons are too embarrassed to discuss this condition with a healthcare professional, and many people believe that urinary problems are an inevitable part of getting older.3,8 Women are especially reluctant to seek treatment, as they often believe that midlife symptoms of OAB are the inevitable byproduct of childbirth.” Patients with OAB tend to not socialize, they do not sleep and rest well during nighttime and they become depressed due to pain and other related factors. As Jensen and other authors stated in Medical care of overactive bladder in elderly patients by Jensen and other authors, “OAB is also associated with an increased rate of depression, emotional disturbances, sleep disorders resulting from nocturia, and social isolation. In one study, adult women who suffered from symptoms of urge incontinence had a higher dysfunction level affecting their quality of life than women with symptoms of stress incontinence”. To conclude, the urinary issues have been affecting not only females, but also males and especially elder individuals. There are many types of urinary issues and all of them affect the life of people with this condition. The health care industry is noticing and detecting the socioeconomic costs and the utilization of medical needs that these individuals need. Studies are showing them that everything will be increasing, and the health care system should prepare and help treat the condition to improve the quality of life of patients with urinary issues. Also, researchers have demonstrated that people with urinary issues are coming more to see their doctors than those who do not have the symptoms of urinary issues. Therefore, the health care system should allow doctors to make home visits for patients who suffer from uncontrollable issue. Also, other studies have shown how the conditions affect the behavior and the views of people. People with this condition are not sleeping enough, they do not go often outside due to leakage and they are becoming depressed due to pain and are limited to do certain activities. Importantly, people who have urinary issues and do not have coverage for the treatments are more at risks than those have sort of help to cover the treatments. The goal of the health care system should be to provide as much as they can to these individuals because as soon as people start reaching the elder stage, the health care system will see a lot of new cases. The best way to avoid this issue is to plan a strategy and perform it now to be safe in the future and improve the quality life of humanity. Needs Assessment Method Study Design: Cohort (investigate what will happen; looking for the risks) or case control (it’s good to study rare conditions and conditions that develop over a long time). If I decide to choose case control, I would have a control group, which will be the group that receives health education workshops. Population Sampling: Elder (45-55), Providing survey, interviewing participants or looking at their medical record (Cohort) Ethics Researchers must make sure to find patients who have chronic interstitials cystitis; not acute cystitis because the researchers need to focus in one group. (sampling) Privacy: the selected participants might not want to share their personal health issue. Logic Model References Chung, S. D., Liu, S. P., Li, H. C., & Lin, H. C. (2014). Health care service utilization among patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a single payer healthcare system. PloS one, 9(1), e87522. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087522 Wooseuk Sung, Hyunwook You, Tai Young Yoon, & Sun-Ju Lee. (2012). Socioeconomic costs of overactive bladder and stress urinary incontinence in Korea. International Neurourology Journal, 16(1), 23-29. Retrieved from https://www.einj.org/upload/pdf/inj-16-1-23-4.pdf Reeves, P., Irwin, D., Kelleher, C., Milsom, I., Kopp, Z., Calvert, N., & Lloyd, A. (2006). The current and future burden and cost of overactive bladder in five European countries. European Urology, 50(5), 1050-1057. Retrieved from https://www-sciencedirect-com.lehman.ezproxy.cuny.edu/science/article/pii/S0302283806005264 Jensen, G. A., Zhiyuan Zhou, & Yasuhiro Torigoe. (2003). Medical care of overactive bladder in elderly patients. Journal of Aging & Pharmacotherapy, 13(1), 13–27. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.lehman.ezproxy.cuny.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=f1a806f5-f021-4da9-ae84-706797e2a0bd%40pdc-v-sessmgr06 Theile, G., Kruschinski, C., Buck, M., Muller, C. A., & Hummers-Pradier, E. (2011). Home visits – central to primary care, tradition or an obligation? A qualitative study. BMC Family Practice, 12, 24. Retrieved from https://link-gale-com.lehman.ezproxy.cuny.edu/apps/doc/A256892103/CWI?u=lehman_main&sid=CWI&xid=a71d1edf
Good day, I am seeking assistance to review 2 papers and write 1 rubric for each paper.
Assignment Read each paper carefully and fill out one rubric for each paper. After reading both papers you should have 2 separate rubrics – one for each paper. Make sure to put the title on each rubric. Good luck. Keep going. Name: Date: Title of Paper Reviewing: Name of Paper Author: DO NOT GRADE. Points are there just as a reminder. RUBRIC ITEM Needs Improvement, Satisfactory, or Exceeds Expectations COMMENTS/FEEDBACK ABSTRACT. Brief and concise summary of research proposal? (5 pts) INTRO and BACKGROUND. 2 para. Research problem, methods summary, why this is important (5 pts) NEEDS ASSESSMENT: 1 pg. stake holders, what info gained, what anticipate finding (10 pts) LITERATURE REVIEW: 7 paragraphs, 5 sources, 5 pts RESEARCH QUESTION & HYPOTHESES: ½ pg. 5 pts METHODS. 40 points. ETHICS. 2 – 3 paragraphs. Risks? Steps to mitigate risks? Sensitivity Analysis? EVAL PLAN. ½ page. How do you know your research is successful? REFERENCE? 5 point 10 Formatting (10 points) APA, spelling, makes sense??? Name: Date: Title of Paper Reviewing: Name of Paper Author: DO NOT GRADE. Points are there just as a reminder. RUBRIC ITEM Needs Improvement, Satisfactory, or Exceeds Expectations COMMENTS/FEEDBACK ABSTRACT. Brief and concise summary of research proposal? (5 pts) INTRO and BACKGROUND. 2 para. Research problem, methods summary, why this is important (5 pts) NEEDS ASSESSMENT: 1 pg. stake holders, what info gained, what anticipate finding (10 pts) LITERATURE REVIEW: 7 paragraphs, 5 sources, 5 pts RESEARCH QUESTION & HYPOTHESES: ½ pg. 5 pts METHODS. 40 points. ETHICS. 2 – 3 paragraphs. Risks? Steps to mitigate risks? Sensitivity Analysis? EVAL PLAN. ½ pages. How do you know your research is successful? REFERENCE? 5 point 10 Formatting (10 points) APA, spelling, makes sense???

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